This article describes the numerous techniques used to measure friction. It provides a brief description of the historical development of friction testing. The article discusses the tests and equipment available for friction testing. It explains the procedural considerations that should be addressed to ensure that valid data are derived from a friction test. The article presents definitions of terms commonly used in tribology such as static friction, kinetic coefficient of friction, stick-slip behavior, and lubricated friction. It provides information on the precautions that must be taken to ensure valid test results. The article also describes how to report data and how to analyze these data.
This article describes the techniques for measuring friction, namely, inclined-plane method; friction test methods using weights and pulleys; friction tests of shafts and capstans; other types of friction tests, including standards; microscale friction tests; and friction testing under well-lubricated conditions. The procedural considerations that should be addressed to ensure that valid data are derived from a friction test are discussed. The article explains friction testing geometries, the major considerations implicit in their use as well as friction test parameters, such as speed and load. It also demonstrates how to report friction data and how these data can be entered into a database.