Probability of detection (POD) assesses the performance of a non-destructive evaluation (NDE)-based inspection, which is a method used to determine the capability of an inspection as a function of defect type and defect size. This article provides an overview of the concept of POD, why it is needed, the history behind the development of POD, how POD assessments are performed, and how modeling and simulation can be integrated into the execution of a POD assessment. It describes the methods by which POD is determined. This includes detail on the experimental process to acquire the needed data, the mathematical methods to obtain a POD curve, and techniques to assess uncertainty in the POD curve as it is obtained from a limited data set. The concept of model-assisted POD (MAPOD) is introduced, with additional details and representative examples of MAPOD.