Lightweight structural cores are used on aircrafts to reduce weight and increase payload and fight distance. This article discusses the classification of lightweight structural cores, namely, honeycomb, balsa, and foam. It reviews the four primary manufacturing methods used to produce honeycomb, including adhesive bonding and expansion, corrugation and adhesive bonding, corrugation and braze welding, and extrusion. The article describes cell configuration and properties of honeycomb. It discusses the factors influencing specification of structural cores, including materials, size, density, mechanical properties, environmental compatibility, formability, durability, and thermal behavior. The article provides information on the benefits and sandwich concepts of sandwich panel containing lightweight structural cores.