This article focuses on the heat removal stages involved in quenching, and on the experimental setup used for measuring temperature and detecting sound signals with the help of illustrations and curves. The quenching process generates acoustic signals, which are the consequences of the phase transformation of steel and of the boiling process at the interface during the cooling process. The sound-pressure signal is captured by the hydrophone through sound-emission measurements that occur during steel quenching in different quenching media. The analysis of the results offers an interesting approach to evaluation and, more importantly, to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing the entire quenching process.
Residual stresses are stresses within a part that result from non-uniform plastic deformation or heating and cooling and play a vital role in ensuring long life of the induction-hardened steel parts. This article provides a description of the formation of residual stresses, and factors affecting their magnitude and distribution as well as their effects on longevity of heat-treated components. The residual stresses of the induction-hardened part are often produced by microstructural transformation, thermal shrinking, distortion, and quenching. Fatigue strength is the main property that gets affected not only by induction hardening but also by residual stresses, quenching conditions, and grain size in the hardened condition. The article concludes with a review of induction heating or hardening in conjunction with other processing methods with examples in terms of properties and, in some cases, effects on residual stress.