Ion implantation involves the bombardment of a solid material with medium-to-high-energy ionized atoms and offers the ability to alloy virtually any elemental species into the near-surface region of any substrate. This article describes the fundamentals of the ion implantation process and discusses the advantages, limitations, and applications of ion implantation. It also reviews a typical medium current semiconductor implanter adapted for implantation of metals with the aid of illustrations.
Ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) refers to the process wherein evaporated atoms produced by physical vapor deposition are simultaneously struck by an independently generated flux of ions. This article discusses the energy utilization of this process. It describes the physical and chemical processes occurring at the film-vacuum interface during IBAD and dual-ion-beam sputtering with illustrations. The article also reviews the methods used for large-area, high-volume implementation of IBAD and the modes of film formation for IBAD. It contains a table that presents information on deposition and synthesis of inorganic compounds by IBAD and concludes with a discussion on the improved coating properties, advantages, limitations, and applications of IBAD.