This article examines the deformation processes in metal-forming operations and considers the effects introduced by scale factors when microforming. It discusses the process parameters and variables affecting surface interactions, including temperature, speed, reduction, stiffness, and dynamic response of equipment. The article reviews the determination of friction coefficient using laboratory monitoring methods, indirect measurements, and the inverse method. It considers the determination of the interface heat-transfer coefficient by using the ring test and computer simulations. The article describes the behavior of oxide scale on the surface of hot metal undergoing thermomechanical processing. It concludes with information on the effects of process and material parameters on interfacial phenomena.
The systematic study of microstructural evolution during deformation under hot working conditions is important in controlling processing variables to achieve dimensional accuracy. This article explains the microstructural features that need to be modeled and provides an outline of the principles and achievements of each of the various microstructural models, including black-box modeling, gray-box modeling, white-box modeling, and hybrid modeling.