This article discusses the operation of upset forging machines and selection of the machine size. It describes several types of upsetter heading tools and their materials. The article reviews the cold shearing and hot shearing methods for preparing blanks for hot upset forging. It deals with various upsetting processes: offset upsetting, double-end upsetting, upsetting with sliding dies, upsetting pipe and tubing, and electric upsetting. The article also provides information on hot forging and cold forging.
Precision forging is defined as a closed-die forging process in which the accuracy of the shape, dimensional tolerances, and surface finish exceed normal expectations to the extent that some of the postforge operations can be eliminated. This article provides an overview of the key factors that impact the precision forging process. It provides information on the achievable tolerances and presents examples of precision forging. A discussion on forging of bevel gears/spiral bevel gears is also presented.