Aluminum wrought products, castings, welds, and fasteners are used in many structural applications where they are required to safely support a load. It is useful to design aluminum structural components with its structural properties in mind from conceptualization rather than attempting to mimic components of other materials. This article discusses design specifications, design requirements and methods, and material properties used in aluminum structural design. These properties include tensile yield strength and tensile ultimate strength, welding, and ductility. The article describes various factors that affect the strength of two categories of aluminum structural components, namely members and connections. Design requirements for aluminum bolts, rivets, screws, and pins are provided. The article concludes with a discussion on the considerations for serviceability, namely deflections and vibrations.