This article provides a comprehensive review and critical assessment of numerical modeling of heat and mass transfer in fusion welding. The different fusion welding processes are gas tungsten arc welding, gas metal arc welding, laser welding, electron beam welding, and laser-arc hybrid welding. The article presents the mathematical equations of mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation. It reviews the applications of heat transfer and fluid flow models for different welding processes. Finally, the article discusses the approaches to improve reliability of, and reduce uncertainty in, numerical models.