The metallographic specimen preparation process for microstructural investigations of cast iron specimens usually consists of five stages: sampling, cold or hot mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching with a suitable etchant to reveal the microstructure. This article describes the general preparation of metallographic specimens and the methods of macroscopic and microscopic examination. Usually, gray-scale (black-and-white) metallography is sufficient for microstructural analysis of cast irons. The article discusses the use of color metallography of gray irons and ductile irons. It also presents application examples of color metallography.
This article describes the safety precautions required for using laboratory equipment. It reviews the various personal protective equipment specified on the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for laboratory chemicals and products. The article provides information on the storage and handling of etchants, solvents, acids, bases, and other chemicals. It describes the safety precautions and procedures for handling concentrated and dilute hydrofluoric acid. The article concludes with a discussion on the precautions to be followed in the event of spills and cleanup.