Grain refinement in aluminum casting alloys tends to reduce the amount of porosity and the size of the pores and to improve mechanical properties, especially fatigue strength. This article provides information on measurement of grain size in alloys and describes the mechanisms of grain refinement in aluminum casting alloys. It reviews the use of boron and titanium as a grain refiner for aluminum casting alloys. The article discusses the best practices for grain refinement in various aluminum casting alloys. These include aluminum-silicon casting alloys, aluminum-silicon-copper casting alloys, aluminum-silicon-copper casting alloys, aluminum-zinc-magnesium casting alloys, and aluminum-magnesium casting alloys. The article also discusses benefits of grain refinement in aluminum casting alloys.
This article focuses on aspects important for the commercial production of castings. It discusses the modification process in hypoeutectic and eutectic alloys that differ only in the relative volume fraction of primary aluminum and aluminum-silicon eutectic. The article explains how modification changes porosity formation in a casting. It describes the mechanisms responsible for silicon modification, as well as the modifications and changes in eutectic nucleation and eutectic grain structure. The article reviews the usage of strontium during process steps in foundry practices. The growth of silicon eutectic is described to explain effects ancillary to silicon modification. The article also discusses the effects of elements, such as phosphorus, antimony, bismuth, magnesium, boron, and calcium, on the silicon structure.