Microstructure and crystallographic texture are the key material features used in the continuous endeavor to relate the processing of a metal with its final properties. This article emphasizes several aspects of deformation microstructures, namely, microstructural evolution, dislocation boundaries, and macroscopic properties. It discusses three different microstructural types: cell blocks, TL blocks, and equiaxed subgrains. The article also emphasizes the behavior of metals and single-phase alloys processed under plastic deformation (dislocation slip) conditions. It provides information on the microstructural parameters, measurement techniques, and microstructural relationships, which assist in predicting the mechanical properties and recrystallization behavior of materials. The article concludes with an analysis of the general relationship between the microstructural parameters and properties.