Forming processes can be divided into three major categories: bulk forming, sheet-metal forming, and semisolid forming and polymer extrusion. This article introduces each process category with a description of the constitutive models. It outlines the required properties for process modeling and describes the test methods for determining these properties. The article discusses several compression tests used to determine stress-strain curves for bulk forming and tensile tests used to obtain stress-strain curves for sheet-metal forming. The article concludes with information on the measurement of viscosity of semisolid alloy materials by using three types of viscometers: the coaxial cylinder viscometer, the cone-and-plate viscometer, and the capillary viscometer.
This article emphasizes short-term tension and compression testing of metals at high temperatures. It describes the effect of temperature on deformation and strain hardening, occurrence of high-temperature creep in structural alloys, and the performing of mechanical testing for high-temperature structural alloys. The article discusses hot tension testing and measurements of temperature and strain in the hot tension testing. It also provides an overview of hot compression testing.