Since its discovery in the early 1900s, superconductivity has been found in a wide range of materials, including pure metals, alloys, compounds, oxides, and organic materials. A rapid phase of new discovery has quickly produced several new classes of high-temperature superconductors. The potential for applications of superconductors is enormous. This Article gives a brief introduction of superconductivity and the historical development of superconductors. The Article describes how the superconducting state manifests itself in important classes of superconducting materials. It also provides a foundation for understanding the basic science and potential applications of superconductivity. The Article outlines the manufacturing methods, properties and applications of various superconducting materials.