This article presents a detailed account of ion chromatography (IC). It begins by describing the principles of common separation modes in IC. This is followed by a section on the different modes of detection, namely suppressed conductivity detection, nonsuppressed conductivity detection, spectrophotometric detection, and electrochemical detection. Various separation modes in IC are then described. The article further provides information on various eluents species, analyte range, and sample preparation techniques in IC. It ends by providing information on the instrumentation and applications and future directions of IC.