This article begins with information on the fundamentals of chip formation process and general considerations for the modeling and simulation of machining processes. It focuses on smaller-scale models that seek to characterize the workpiece/tool/chip interface and behaviors closely associated with that. The article describes the advantages and disadvantages of various finite-element modeling approaches, namely, transient models, continuous cutting model, steady-state model, hybrid model, two-dimensional models, and three-dimensional models. It discusses flow stress measurements using constitutive and inverse testing methods and reviews tool design for chip removal. The article explains the effect of tool geometry on burr formation and the effect of coatings on tool temperatures. It concludes with information on tool wear, which is an unavoidable effect of metal cutting.