Additive manufacturing produces a change in the shape of a substrate by adding material progressively. This article discusses the simulation of laser deposition and three principal thermomechanical phenomena during the laser deposition process: absorption of laser radiation; heat conduction, convection, and phase change; and elastic-plastic deformation. It provides a description of four sets of data used for modeling and simulation of additive manufacturing processes, namely, material constitutive data, solid model, initial and boundary conditions, and laser deposition process parameters. The article considers three aspects of simulation of additive manufacturing: simulation for initial selection of process parameter setup, simulation for in situ process control, and simulation for ex situ process optimization. It also presents some examples of computational mechanics solutions for automating various components of additive manufacturing simulation.
For forming processes, optimization goals range from tuning the process parameters while keeping geometry unchanged to finding optimal geometry for intermediate dies in a multistage forming operation. This article commences with a description on the three salient steps of optimization procedures: defining the objective function, calculating the objective function, and searching an optimum design. It concludes with an example illustrating the optimization of conical-die extrusion.