Polymers and polymer composites have become attractive for tribological applications due to their specific material properties. This article begins by discussing the fundamentals of polymer friction and wear. It summarizes the main polymer materials used in tribological applications. The article explains the effects of load, sliding velocity, and temperature on the friction coefficient. It describes three types of wear modes, namely, abrasive, adhesion, and fatigue. The article discusses the frictional behavior of polymer composites and polymer coatings. It concludes by providing information on tribotesting of polymers and polymer composites.