Fracture mechanics is a multidisciplinary engineering topic that has foundations in both mechanics and materials science. This article summarizes the microstructural aspect of fracture resistance in structural materials. It provides a discussion on basic fracture principles and schematically illustrates the mechanism of crack propagation. The article describes the fracture resistance of high-strength steels, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, and composites such as brittle matrix-ductile phase composites and metal-matrix composites. It also lists the effects of microstructural variables on fracture toughness of steels, aluminum alloys, and titanium alloys.