Rehabilitation is the process of repairing or modifying reinforced concrete structures to a desired useful condition. This article describes the operational steps for the structural assessment of reinforced concrete structures. It discusses the classification of composite materials reinforcing systems for strengthening reinforced concrete structures, such as shop-manufactured and field-manufactured structures. The article reviews the materials property requirements for design of reinforcing systems to strengthen the reinforced concrete structures. It discusses the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)-reinforced concrete behavior that depends on flexural, shear, or axial failures. Surface preparation procedures for rehabilitation techniques of reinforced concrete structures using bonded FRP materials are also discussed. The article provides information on the applications of rehabilitation of concrete structures. It describes data recording and acceptance criteria for rehabilitation of concrete structures with composite materials.