Discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA) alloy metal-matrix composites (MMCs) represent an advanced aluminum materials concept whereby ceramic particles, or whiskers, are added to aluminum-base alloys through the use of either ingot-melting or casting and/or powder-metallurgy (P/M) techniques. This article begins with a summary of general observations on the forging of discontinuously reinforced composites. It provides information on some of the specific experimental results obtained on various DRA systems, including 2xxx DRA alloys and cast DRA alloys. The article reviews the efforts on the modeling of behavior of specific alloy systems, with a comparison of experimental results to the modeling attempts. It concludes with information on the properties of deformation-processed DRA alloys.
This article begins with a general review of the effects of changes in stress state on processing of materials. It describes the fundamentals of hydrostatic extrusion and reviews the various issues and benefits associated with hydrostatic extrusion. The article discusses the hydrostatic extrusion of structural alloys, composites, brittle materials, and intermetallics or intermetallic compounds, with examples. It concludes with a discussion on the attempts made to extend the hydrostatic extrusion to higher temperatures.