This article focuses on the general internal state variable method, and its simplification, for single-parameter models, in which the microstructure evolution may be treated as an isokinetic reaction. It explains that isokinetic microstructure models are applied to diffusional transformations in fusion welding, covering particle dissolution, growth, and coarsening of precipitates in the heat-affected zone. The article discusses the versatility of the internal state variable approach in modeling of nonisothermal transformations for various materials and processes. It describes the process models applied to predict the microstructure evolution in Al-Mg-Si alloys during multistage thermal processing involving heat treatment and welding. The article also provides information on the microstructure models exploited in engineering design to optimize the load-bearing capacity of welded aluminum components.
This article reviews the classical models for the pseudo-steady-state temperature distribution of the thermal field around moving point and line sources. These include thick- and thin-plate models and the medium-thick-plate model. The analytical solutions to the differential heat flow equation under conditions applicable to fusion welding are provided. The article also provides an overview of the factors affecting heat flow in a real welding situation using the analytical modeling approach because this makes it possible to derive relatively simple equations that provide the required background for an understanding of the temperature-time pattern.