Chapter 11: Forging
Forging is a deformation process achieved through the application of compressive stresses. During the stroke, pressures and velocities are continuously changing and the initial lubricant supply must suffice for the duration of the operation. Lubricant residues and pickup products also change with time, further complicating the analysis of friction and wear. This chapter provides a qualitative and quantitative overview of the mechanics and tribology of forging in all of its forms. It discusses the effects of friction, pressures, forces, and temperature on the deformation and flow of metals in open-die, closed-die, and impression-die forging and in back extrusion and piercing operations. It presents various ways to achieve fluid-film lubrication in upset forging processes and examines the cause of barreling, defect formation, and folding in the upsetting of cylinders, rings, and slabs. It also explains how to evaluate lubricants, friction, and wear under hot, cold, and warm forging conditions and how to extend die life and reduce defects when processing different materials.
Forging, Schey’s Tribology in Metalworking: Friction, Lubrication, and Wear, By Steven R. Schmid, ASM International, 2023, p 325–388, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390325
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