Principles of Soldering
Chapter 5: Advances in Soldering Technology
This chapter presents several materials and processes related to soldering technology. It first provides information on lead-free solders, followed by sections devoted to flip-chip processes, diffusion soldering, and modeling. Scanning acoustic microscopy and fine-focus x-ray techniques are also discussed. The chapter describes several evaluation procedures and tests developed to measure solderability and standards for process calibration. The chapter also describes the characteristics of reinforced solders, amalgams used as solders, and other strategies to boost the strength of solders. Further, the chapter considers methods for quantifying the mechanical integrity of joints and predicting their dimensional stability under specified environmental conditions. It discusses the effects of rare earth elements on the properties of solders. The chapter concludes with information on advanced joint characterization techniques.