Chapter 7: Tensile Testing of Metals and Alloys
The tensile test provides a relatively easy, inexpensive technique for developing mechanical property data for the selection, qualification, and utilization of metals and alloys in engineering service. The tensile test requires interpretation, and interpretation requires a knowledge of the factors that influence the test results. This chapter provides a metallurgical perspective for such interpretation. The topics covered include elastic behavior, anelasticity, damping, proportional limit, yield point, ultimate strength, toughness, ductility, strain hardening, and yielding and the onset of plasticity. The chapter describes the effects of grain size on yielding, effect of cold work on hardness and strength, and effects of temperature and strain-rate on the properties of metals and alloys. It provides information on true stress-strain relationships and special tests developed to measure the effects of test/specimen conditions. Finally, the chapter covers the characterization of tensile fractures of ductile metals and alloys.