Chapter 3: Bulk Deformation
This chapter discusses bulk deformation processes and how they are used to reshape metals and refine solidification structures. It begins by describing the differences between hot and cold working along with their respective advantages. It then discusses various forging methods, including open-die and closed-die forging, hot upset and roll forging, high-energy-rate forging, ring rolling, rotary swaging, radial and orbital forging, isothermal and hot-die forging, precision forging, and cold forging. The chapter also includes information on cold and hot extrusion and drawing operations.