Chapter 15: Inspection of Forgings
In forgings of both ferrous and nonferrous metals, the flaws that most often occur are caused by conditions that exist in the ingot, by subsequent hot working of the ingot or the billet, and by hot or cold working during forging. The inspection methods most commonly used to detect these flaws include visual, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, eddy current, and radiographic inspection. This chapter provides a detailed discussion on the characteristics, process steps, applications, advantages, and limitations of these methods. It also describes the flaws caused by the forging operation and the principal factors that influence the selection of a nondestructive inspection method for forgings.
Inspection of Forgings, Inspection of Metals: Understanding the Basics, Edited By F.C. Campbell, ASM International, 2013, p 365–391, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
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