Absorbers, Evaporators, and Condensers
Several tubes in a tube bundle in an evaporator used to concentrate an acid nitrate solution failed by leakage. The feed to the evaporator contained about 6% nitrate, and the discharge about 60% nitrate. The tube bundle was comprised of type 309S (Nb) stainless steel drawn-and-welded tubes expanded and welded into two type 304L stainless steel tube sheets. The tubes failed by crevice corrosion. The failed tubes were defective as-received, and the establishment of concentration cells within the longitudinal cracks in the seam welds led to ultimate corrosive penetration of the wall. There was no evidence of crevice corrosion...