ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Air and Spacecraft
A bomb retaining ring fabricated from type 302 stainless steel unwrapped during a practice flight, causing the bomb fins to deploy. The retaining ring was able to unwrap itself because it was thinner and softer than required. Hardness testing, metallography, and tensile testing confirmed that the component was in the annealed condition and not in the required work-hardened 1/4-hard condition.
Aircraft missile launcher attachment bolts fabricated from cadmium-coated Hy-tuf steel were found broken. Subsequent analysis of the broken bolts indicated three causes of failure. First, the bolts had been carburized, which was not in conformance with the heat treating requirements. Second, macroetching showed that the bolts has been machined from stock rather than forged, and the threads cut rather than rolled. It was also determined that hydrogen-assisted stress-corrosion cracking also played a part in the failure of the high-strength bolts.
Weapon Systems, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Air and Spacecraft, ASM International, 2019
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