Metal Casting Equipment
A forged 4130 steel cylindrical permanent mold, used for centrifugal casting of gray- and ductile-iron pipe, was examined after pulling of the pipe became increasingly difficult. In operation, the mold rotated at a predetermined speed in a centrifugal casting machine while the molten metal, flowing through a trough, was poured into the mold beginning at the bell end and ending with the spigot end being poured last. After the pipe had cooled, it was pulled out from the bell end of the mold, and the procedure was repeated. Investigation supported the conclusion that failure of the mold surface was the result of localized overheating caused by splashing of molten metal on the bore surface near the spigot end. In addition, the mold-wash compound (a bentonite mixture) near the spigot end was too thin to provide the proper degree of insulation and to prevent molten metal from sticking to the bore surface. Recommendations included reducing the pouring temperatures of the molten metal and spraying a thicker insulating coating onto the mold surface.