This article describes the principles and applications of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). It provides information on the instrumentation typically used in the AES, including an electron gun, an electron spectrometer, a secondary electron detector, and an ion gun. The article also describes experimental methods and limitations of the AES, including elemental detection sensitivity, electron beam artifacts, sample charging, spectral peak overlap, high vapor pressure samples, and sputtering artifacts.
This article provides a detailed account of the principles, instrumentation,and applications of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a technique used for elemental and compositional analysis of surfaces and thin films. It reviews the nomenclature of energy states and sensitivity of electrons at the surface that are capable of producing peaks in XPS. Additionally, it presents information on the instrumentation and the preparation and mounting of samples for XPS analysis. The article explains qualitative analysis, namely, measuring of shifts in the binding energy of core electrons, multiplet splitting, and the Auger parameter; and quantitative analysis such as depth analysis carried out using XPS. It also discusses the applications of XPS with examples.