Fusion welding processes involve four phase changes, namely, solid-solid state, solid-liquid, liquid-vapor, and vapor-plasma. Each has its own thermal, momentum, and stress history. This article discusses some important techniques to validate temperature, momentum, stress, and residual strain history observed in the heat-affected zone of fusion welded materials.
J. Mazumde, Validation Strategies for Heat-Affected Zone and Fluid-Flow Calculations, Welding, Brazing, and Soldering, Vol 6, ASM Handbook, Edited By David LeRoy Olson, Thomas A. Siewert, Stephen Liu, Glen R. Edwards, ASM International, 1993, p 1147–1152, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001482
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