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This article focuses on the various assumptions involved in the numerical modeling of welds, including the geometry of the welded structure and the weld joint, thermal stress, strain, residual stress, and the microstructure in the heat-affected and fusion zones.

This article briefly reviews the physical phenomena that influence the input-energy distribution. It discusses the several simplified and detailed heat source models used in the modeling of arc welding, high-energy-density welding, and resistance welding processes.

Fusion welding processes involve four phase changes, namely, solid-solid state, solid-liquid, liquid-vapor, and vapor-plasma. Each has its own thermal, momentum, and stress history....

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