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This article provides an overview of the types of weld discontinuities that are characteristic of specialized welding processes. These welding processes include electron-beam welding, plasma arc welding, electroslag welding, friction welding, resistance welding, and diffusion welding. The article also describes the common inspection methods used to detect these discontinuities.

This article describes the applications, methods, and limitations of five principal nondestructive test methods, namely, penetrant testing, magnetic-particle testing, eddy current testing, radiographic testing, and ultrasonic testing. The article also provides guidance for the method selection for respective applications.

Welding codes and standards usually require the qualification of welding procedures prior to being used in production. This is to ensure that welds will meet the minimum quality and mechanical property requirements for the application. This article provides an overview of the welding procedure qualification guidelines and test methods. It also reviews the codes, standards, and specifications that govern the design and fabrication of welded structures for the procedure qualification details that are appropriate for a given application.

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