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Welding and joining processes are essential for the development of virtually every manufactured product. This article discusses the fundamentals of fusion welding processes, with an emphasis on the underlying scientific principles. It reviews the role of energy-source intensity and the width of the heat-affected zone in fusion welding processes. The article contains figures from which the properties of any heat source can be estimated readily.

During fusion welding, the thermal cycles produced by the moving heat source cause physical state changes, metallurgical phase transformation, and transient thermal stress and metal movement. This article presents an analysis of heat flow in the fusion welding process. The primary objective of welding heat flow modeling is to provide a mathematical tool for thermal data analysis, design iterations, or the systematic investigation of the thermal characteristics of any welding parameters. The article addresses analytical heat-flow solutions and their practical applications. It describes the effects of material property and welding condition on the temperature distribution of weldments. The thermal properties of selected engineering materials are provided in a table.

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