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This article focuses on approximate closed-form analytical methods, such as slab and upper bound methods, used for forward and inverse design of metal forming problems. Selected examples of application of these methods to metal forming processes are also discussed.

Several methods are developed for the numerical solution of partial differential equations, namely, meshed-solution methods such as the finite-element method (FEM), finite-difference method, and boundary-element method; and numerical algorithms consisting of so-called meshed-solution methods. This article introduces the methods of so-called meshed solutions, with an emphasis on the FEM. It presents some basic differential equations that are used to model the responses of structures, components, processes, or systems with emphasis on continuum mechanics. The article provides an outline on the mathematical principles of solving differential equations. It also reviews linear structural problems to illustrate the concept of the FEMs.

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