This article reviews the concepts considered important for an understanding of the processes used for preparing cobalt-chromium alloy implants, the microstructures resulting from this processing, and the resulting material properties. The review includes solidification of alloys, diffusionless (martensitic) phase transformation as occurs with face-centered cubic to hexagonal close-packed transformation in cobalt-chromium alloys, and stacking faults and twins and their role in this transformation. It also discusses the strengthening mechanisms that are responsible for the mechanical properties of cast and wrought cobalt alloys. The article contains tables that list the commonly used cobalt alloys and their biomedical applications and chemical...
Robert Pilliar, Scott D. Ramsay, Cobalt-Base Alloys, Materials for Medical Devices, Vol 23, ASM Handbook, Edited By Roger J. Narayan, ASM International, 2012, p 211–222, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
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