This article provides a summary of the biocompatibility or biological response of metals, ceramics, and polymers used in medical implants, along with their clinical issues. The polymers include ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene, nonresorbable polymer, and resorbable polymers.
This article outlines the selection criteria for choosing an implant material for biomedical devices in orthopedic, dental, soft-tissue, and cardiovascular applications. It details the development of various implants, such as metallic, ceramic, and polymeric implants. The article discusses specific problems associated with implant manufacturing processes and the consequent compromises in the properties of functionally graded implants. It describes the manufacturing of the functionally-graded hip implant by using the LENS process. The article reviews four different types of tissue responses to the biomaterial. It discusses the testing methods of implant failure, such as in vitro and in vivo assessment of tissue compatibility.