Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials
This article considers the two primary methods used for ultrasonic inspection: pulse-echo and the transmission methods. Pulse-echo inspection can be accomplished with longitudinal, shear, surface (Rayleigh), or Lamb (plate) waves using a diverse range of transducers. The article discusses the principles of each of these inspection methods. It describes the applications and the basic data formats for single-element transducer-based systems, including A-scans, B-scans, and C-scans. The article provides information on electronic equipment used for ultrasonic inspection. It also describes how specific material conditions produce and modify A-scan indications. The article provides information on the controls and their functions for...
Leonard J. Bond, Basic Inspection Methods (Pulse-Echo and Transmission Methods), Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials, Vol 17, ASM Handbook, Edited By Aquil Ahmad, Leonard J. Bond, ASM International, 2018, p 169–183, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
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