Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials
Film radiography requires the development of the exposed film so that the latent image becomes visible for viewing. It describes the general characteristics of film, including speed, gradient, and graininess, and the factors affecting film selection and exposure time. The article discusses the three major inspection techniques for tubular sections, namely, the double-wall, double-image technique; the double-wall, single-image technique; and the single-wall, single-image technique. It illustrates the arrangements of penetrameters and identification markers for the radiography of plates, cylinders, and flanges. The article discusses various control methods, including the use of lead screens; protection against backscatter and scatter from...
Claudia Kropas-Hughes, Film Radiography, Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials, Vol 17, ASM Handbook, Edited By Aquil Ahmad, Leonard J. Bond, ASM International, 2018, p 410–435, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
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