Liquid penetrant inspection is a nondestructive method of revealing discontinuities that are open to the surfaces of solid and essentially nonporous materials. This article provides information on physical principles, evolution, description, and processing parameters of liquid penetrant inspection as well as materials used. It discusses some of the more generally used types of equipment used in penetrant inspection and their requirements. The article describes various penetrant methods and their selection criteria and provides information on precleaning and postcleaning of workpieces before and after penetrant inspection. The quality assurance and maintenance of penetrant inspection materials are also discussed. The article concludes with information on specifications and standards applicable to penetrant inspection.
David Eisenmann, Liquid Penetrant Inspection, Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials, Vol 17, ASM Handbook, Edited By Aquil Ahmad, Leonard J. Bond, ASM International, 2018, p 79–95, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006440
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