This article discusses two basic forms of extrusion: cold and hot. It provides information on three types of extrusion processes, namely, direct extrusion, reverse extrusion, and hydrostatic extrusion. The article also discusses the mechanics, analysis, tooling and die design of extrusion as well as thermodynamics. The finite-element method suitable for simulation of metal forming processes is explained. The article examines the extrusion defects that are divided into three different categories including surface, subsurface, and internal type. It includes information on friction and lubrication modeling of extrusion processes. The article also discusses the fundamentals of extrusion technology of titanium alloys and aluminum. It concludes with information on two forms of wear in extrusion, namely, adhesive and abrasive wear.
Pradip Saha, Steven Schmid, Tribology of Extrusion, Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology, Vol 18, ASM Handbook, Edited By George E. Totten, ASM International, 2017, p 784–797, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006385
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