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Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are being developed for a number of high-temperature and high-performance applications in industrial, aerospace, and energy conservation sectors. This article focuses on processing, fabrication, testing, and characterization methods of CMCs, namely, discontinuously reinforced composites and continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. Processing methods include cold pressing, sintering, hot pressing, reaction bonding, melt infiltration, directed metal oxidation, sol-gel and polymer pyrolysis, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and joining. A table summarizes the properties of various ceramic reinforcements and industrial applications of these composites.

Carbon-carbon composites (CCCs) are introduced in fields that require their high specific strength and stiffness, in combination with their...

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