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Constitutive relations for metal-working include elements of behavior at ambient temperature as well as high-temperature response. This article presents the equations for the strain hardening and strain-rate-sensitive flow, with alternate sections on empirically determined properties, followed by models of constitutive behavior. These models include the isothermal constitutive model and the physical model for superplastic flow. A formal description of the superposition of the operative mechanisms for dynamic recovery at hot-working strain rates is also provided. The article describes creep mechanisms that are useful for illustrating the strong stress dependence of dislocation and diffusional flow.

Springback refers to the elastically driven change of shape that occurs after deforming a body and then releasing it. This article presents an introduction to the concepts of springback simulation as well as recommendations for its practice in a metal forming setting of thin beams or sheets. It discusses bending with tension and more complex numerical treatments. The article addresses the limitations of the various assumptions followed in springback simulation. It provides a discussion on the design of dies and tooling using an assumed springback prediction capability.

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