This article discusses the evolution of computer numerical control and direct numerical control for machine tools. It describes the fundamentals and advantages of numerical control (NC) systems. The article reviews the manual or computer assisted off-line programming methods for programming the tools with the aid of the automatically programmed tool language. It also explains point-to-point and continuous-path or contouring of NC systems and the adaptive systems used for NC.
Yoram Koren, Numerical Control, Machining, Vol 16, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1989, p 613–617, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002174
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