This article provides the definitions of stress and strain, and describes the relationship between stress and strain by stress-strain curves and true-stress/true-strain curves. The emphasis is on understanding the factors that determine the extent of deformation a metal can withstand before cracking or fracture occurs. The article reviews the process variables that influence the degree of workability and summarizes the mathematical relationships that describe the occurrence of room-temperature ductile fracture under workability conditions. It discusses the most common situations encountered in multiaxial stress states. The construction of a processing map based on deformation mechanisms is also discussed.
George E. Dieter, Bulk Workability of Metals, Metalworking: Bulk Forming, Vol 14A, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2005, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
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