Workability in forging depends on a variety of material, process-variable, and die-design features. A number of test techniques have been developed for gaging forgeability depending on alloy type, microstructure, die geometry, and process variables. This article summarizes some common workability tests and illustrates their application in practical forging situations. Workability tests for open-die forging of cast structures, hot and cold open-die forging of recrystallized structures, fracture-controlled defect formation, establishing effects of process variables and secondary tensile stresses on forgeability, and flow-localization-controlled failure are some common tests. The workability test used for closed-die forging is also summarized.
S.L. Semiatin, Workability in Forging, Metalworking: Bulk Forming, Vol 14A, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2005, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
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