This article discusses the operation of upset forging machines and selection of the machine size. It describes several types of upsetter heading tools and their materials. The article reviews the cold shearing and hot shearing methods for preparing blanks for hot upset forging. It deals with various upsetting processes: offset upsetting, double-end upsetting, upsetting with sliding dies, upsetting pipe and tubing, and electric upsetting. The article also provides information on hot forging and cold forging.
J. Richard Douglas, Hot Upset Forging, Metalworking: Bulk Forming, Vol 14A, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2005, p 119–130, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
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