This article discusses the common causes of failures of springs, with illustrations. Design deficiencies, material defects, processing errors or deficiencies, and unusual operating conditions are the common causes of spring failures. In most cases, these causes result in failure by fatigue. The article describes the operating conditions of springs, common failure mechanisms, and presents an examination of the failures that occur in springs.
James H. Maker, Failures of Springs, Failure Analysis and Prevention, Vol 11, Edited By William T. Becker, Roch J. Shipley, ASM International, 2002, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
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