This article commences with a description of the prosthetic devices and implants used for internal fixation. It describes the complications related to implants and provides a list of major standards for orthopedic implant materials. The article illustrates the body environment and its interactions with implants. The considerations for designing internal fixation devices are also described. The article analyzes failed internal fixation devices by explaining the failures of implants and prosthetic devices due to implant deficiencies, mechanical or biomechanical conditions, and degradation. Finally, the article discusses the fatigue properties of implant materials and the fractures of total hip joint prostheses.
Ortrun E.M. Pohler, Failures of Metallic Orthopedic Implants, Failure Analysis and Prevention, Vol 11, Edited By William T. Becker, Roch J. Shipley, ASM International, 2002, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
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